What is a bacteriophage? (a bacteriophage?)

Viruses that kill infected host cells are considered toxic. The DNA of this type of virus is replicated through a lysis cycle. In this cycle, the phage attaches to the bacterial cell wall and injects its DNA into the host. The viral DNA replicates and guides the construction and assembly of more viral DNA and other viral parts. Once assembled, the number of newly produced viruses continues to increase, destroying or lysing host cells. Lysis leads to the destruction of the host. The entire cycle can be completed within 20-30 minutes, depending on various factors such as temperature. The reproduction of bacteriophages is much faster than the reproduction of typical bacteria, so the entire bacterial colony can...

What is a bacteriophage? (a bacteriophage?)

1) Virulent phage and lysis cycle

Viruses that kill infected host cells are considered toxic. The DNA of this type of virus is replicated through a lysis cycle. In this cycle, the phage attaches to the bacterial cell wall and injects its DNA into the host. The viral DNA replicates and guides the construction and assembly of more viral DNA and other viral parts. Once assembled, the number of newly produced viruses continues to increase, destroying or lysing host cells. Lysis leads to the destruction of the host. The entire cycle can be completed within 20-30 minutes, depending on various factors such as temperature. Bacteriophages multiply much faster than typical bacteria multiply, so the entire bacterial colony can be quickly destroyed. The lysis cycle is also common in animal viruses.

2) Temperate Viruses and Lysogen Cycle

Mild viruses are those viruses that multiply without killing the host cell. Mild viruses multiply through the lysinogen cycle and enter a dormant state. In the lysogenic cycle, viral DNA is inserted into the bacterial chromosome through genetic recombination. Once inserted, the viral genome is called a prophage. When the host bacteria reproduce, the prophage genome is copied and passed to each bacterial daughter cell. The host cell that carries the prophage has the potential for lysis, so it is called a lysogenic cell. Under stress conditions or other triggering conditions, the prophage may switch from the lysogenic cycle to the lysis cycle to rapidly multiply virus particles. This leads to bacterial cell lysis. Viruses that infect animals may also reproduce through the lysogenic cycle. For example, the herpes virus initially enters the lytic cycle after infection, and then turns into the lytic cycle. The virus enters the incubation period and can stay in the nervous system tissues for months or years without causing toxicity. Once triggered, the virus enters the lysis cycle and produces a new virus.

3) Pseudo-lysogen cycle

The life cycle of phage may also be slightly different from the lysis and lysogen cycle. In the pseudo-lysogenic cycle, viral DNA will not replicate (such as in the lysogenic cycle) or insert into the bacterial genome (such as in the lysogenic cycle). This cycle usually occurs when there is not enough nutrients to support the growth of bacteria. The viral genome is called a prophage that cannot replicate in bacterial cells. Once the nutrient level is restored to a sufficient state, the prephages may enter the lysis or lysogen cycle.

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